Stepper Motors
Stepper Motors

Anaheim Automation's Stepper Motors product line is the most comprehensive from a single source. The line includes: High-Torque Stepper Motors, "Legacy" round-bodied Stepper Motors, Spur Gear Stepper Motors, Planetary Gear Stepper Motors, Permanent Magnet (PM) Stepper Motors, Permanent Magnet Stepper Gearmotors, Linear Actuator Stepper Motors, and Specialty-Type Stepper Motors, such as 0.9 degree, IP65-Rated, and motors that integrate motor, driver and/or controller in one unit. The Stepper Motor products range from the smallest 08Y Series with 2.5 oz-in of torque, to the largest 42K series with up to 5,700 oz-in of torque. Anaheim Automation can cross other manufacturers, including obsolete products, typically at substantial savings! Options include lead wire configurations, conduit boxes, shaft modifications, encoder, cable and connector adders.


Stepper Motor Selector
This utility will guide you in selecting the correct motor for your application!

Motor Type

Shaft


Frame Size
Holding Torque


oz*in
N*m
lb*in
Motor Length
Inches




  • Torque: 2.5 to 5,700 Ounce-Inches
  • Sizes: NEMA 08, 11, 14, 15, 17, 23, 24, 34 and 42
  • 1.8 and 0.9 Degree, Square-Bodied, High-Torque Stepper Motors
  • Up to Four Stack Lengths, Several Windings in Each Frame Size
  • Four, Six or Eight Lead Wires, Or Conduit Boxes
  • Customization and Motor Adders Available
  • Drop-In Replacement for Most Competitors, at Huge Savings!
  • Torque: 40 to 1,575 Ounce-Inches
  • Sizes: NEMA 23, 34 and 42
  • 1.8 Degree, Round-Bodied, "Legacy" Motors
  • Up to Three Stack Lengths, Several Windings in Each Frame Size
  • Six or Eight Lead Wires, Or Conduit Boxes
  • Specials and Motor Adders Available
  • Save on Drop-In Replacement of Competitors
  • Torque: 1 to 23 Ounce-Inches
  • Sizes: 15 to 57mm Diameter
  • Cost-Effective, Brushless Stepper Motors
  • Customization and Motor Adders Available
  • Drop-In Replacement for Most Competitors
  • Low Prices, Huge Selection
  • Torque: 35 to 5,700 Ounce-Inches
  • Sizes: NEMA 17, 23, 34 and 42
  • 1.8-Degree, High-Torque Stepper Motors
  • Up to Four Stack Lengths, Several Windings in Each Frame Size
  • Meets Splash-Proof Requirements
  • Made for Harsh or Humid Environments
  • Protective Shaft Seal for Longer Life Cycle
Fundamentals of Stepper Motors

Frequently Asked Questions
What temperatures are stepper motors able to run at?
Most stepper motors include Class B insulation. This allows the motor to sustain temperatures of up to 130° C. Therefore, with an ambient temperature of 40° C, the stepper motor has a temperature rise allowance of 90° C allowing for stepper motors to run at high temperatures.

What is the difference between four, six and eight leads in motors?
4 and 6 lead stepper motors are considered 2 phase motors. 8 lead stepper motors are considered to be 4 phase steppers. 4 lead motors can be wired in bipolar series connection only 6 lead motors can be wired in bipolar series, bipolar half-coil or uniploar connections 8 lead motors can be wired in bipolar series, bipolar half-coil, biploar parallel or uniploar connections.

What is the recommended cable distance between Anaheim Automation stepper motors and drivers?
We recommend that the wiring between stepper motors and drivers not exceed 25 feet. Although it is not required, we suggest using Anaheim Automation shielded motor cable. This cable is ideally suited to handle all driver and motor combinations that we offer. We can also add connectors to the cables. Please contact an Applications Engineer for more details.

What is the life expectancy of Anaheim Automation Stepper Motors?
Anaheim Automation stepper motors life expectancy is mainly based on the bearings. The majority of Anaheim Automation stepper motors contain ball bearings providing 20,000 plus hours life expectancy under normal operating conditions. Anaheim Automation’s warranty is 12 months after the invoice date. See the “Environmental Conditions” sections of the stepper motor guide for more details.

What gauge wire should be used for a NEMA 34 stepper motor @ 10 feet of distance?
Anaheim Automation motor cable is ideal. It is 16 gauge, 8 conductor with matching color code for the stepper motors carried by Anaheim Automation. We can also add connectors for you if you prefer. See the Accessories section of our web site for more details.

Does Anaheim Automation have Permanent Magnet Stepper Motors?
Yes. In size ranging from 15 to 57 mm in diameter, with torque ranges of 1 to 23 oz.-in. (model dependent). See PM Stepper Motors under the Stepper Motor category on our web site for more details and product specifications.

Can I order a stepper motor with 3% accuracy instead of 5%?
Because almost all of our 5% rated stepper motors fall into the 3% accuracy category, we usually recommend that you order our standard motors. If you require a “guarantee” for the 3% accuracy, contact the factory for assistance.

I need a stepper gearmotor. Does Anaheim Automation offer these motors?
Yes. Anaheim Automation offers stepper motors with Planetary Gearboxes in NEMA sizes 11, 17 and 23. We also have stepper motors with Spur Gearboxes in NEMA sizes 23 and 34, and PM stepper gearmotors in sized 24 to 42 mm diameters. Visit the Stepper Gearmotor section of our web site for more details. Please Note: We also offer gearboxes and motors separately, should you not find the size or gear ratio you require.

Does Anaheim Automation make stepper motors with drivers attached?
Yes. Anaheim Automation offers a line of Integrated Stepper Motors with Drivers and/or Controllers, in NEMA sizes 17, 23 and 34.Check our 17MD, 23MD, and 34MD series for Integrated Motor/Drivers, and our 17MDSI and 23MDSI series for our Integrated Motor/Driver/Controller product lines.

Can I purchase an IP65 rated Stepper Motor?
Yes. Anaheim Automation offers a IP65 version for NEMA sizes 17, 23, 34 and 42 frame stepper motors, torque ranges from 35 to 5,700 oz.-in.(model specific). Visit our web site under Stepper Motors, and search IP65 motors.

What types of applications are encoders implemented in?
Encoders are frequently used in stepper motors, automation, robotics, medical devices, motion control and many other applications requiring position feedback.

Why does my stepper motor run hot?
Under normal operating conditions, stepper motors will run “hot.” Always include adequate airflow in your stepper motor/driver system. Check the individual specification sheet for the stepper motor to be certain it is in the normal temperature range. If not, consult Anaheim Automation’s Application Engineers.

Can I order stepper motors with encoders added? How do I go about it?
Yes. Encoders can not only be added to stepper motors, but brushless motors as well. Please refer to our Encoders located under Accessories on our web site. Anaheim Automation offers a line of single-ended or differential incremental rotary encoders. These encoders are available in sizes to cover NEMA 08 to 42 motors. These encoders have the capability to track from 0 to 100,000 cycles per second, with options of 32 to 2,500 cycles per revolution, with or without index features. Encoders are configured as motor adders, for dual shaft motors, or can be purchased separately, located on our Encoder web pages. Encoder cables are available, but also purchased separately.

Can Anaheim Automation cross a PacSci stepper motor?
For many stepper motors models, Anaheim Automation has a perfect cross for the PacSci motors, particularly in the PacSci N and K series, and the older KML series. We have Cross Reference lists on our web site, or you may contact an Anaheim Automation Customer Service representative for more details.

Can Anaheim Automation cross a SloSyn stepper motor?
For many stepper motors models, Anaheim Automation has a perfect cross for the Superior Electric SloSyn stepper motors, particularly in the KML and MO60 and MO90 series. We have Cross Reference lists on our web site, or you may contact an Anaheim Automation Customer Service representative for more details.

Can Anaheim Automation cross an Automation Direct stepper motor?
Yes. For many stepper motors models, Anaheim Automation has a good cross for the Automation Direct high-torque stepper motors. We have Cross Reference lists on our web site, or you may contact an Anaheim Automation Customer Service representative for more details.

Are stepper motors accurate?
Yes, if you mean accuarte as in precise step/motion? The only inaccuracy associated with a stepper motor is a noncumulative positioning error which is measured in % of the step angle. Typically, stepper motors are manufactured within a 2-5% step accuracy, even better for some manufacturers.

Compared to other stepper motor driver manufacturers, Anaheim Automation offers a lot of microstep driver choices. Why so many models?
Anaheim Automation has one of the broadest lines of stepper motor products in order to give customers as many options as possible, to gachieve the performance they desire in the most cost-effective solution. Typical microstep driver modes range from 'divide-by-8’ to 'divide-by-256' (up to 51,200 steps per revolution for a 1.8 degree motor), which are dependent upon the driver series. Some microstep drivers have a fixed divisor, while the more expensive microstep drivers provide for selectable divisors, up to 256. In general, the larger the microstep divisor provided, the more costly the microstep driver. The higher the current range is, the more expensive the driver. So, to get customers more closely to the exact requirements, we offer a wide variety to choose from. Anaheim Automation also manufactures a series of Integrated Stepper Motors/Drivers, meaning the stepper motor and microstep driver are in one unit. This design approach takes the guesswork out of motor and driver compatibility. For more information, please see the 17MD, 23MD and 34MD series.

What is the required maintenance for a stepper motor?
Since stepper motors are brushless, they require no maintenance for wear and tear on brushes and commutators. Keeping the environment clean will be helpful.

What is the ambient temperature of a stepper motor?
This depends on the class rating for the insulation. Anaheim Automation's standard stepper motors are class B rated. This means an internal temperature of 130°C maximum on the internal windings. With the motors rated current in both windings, the temperature rise is 80°C. So 130°-80° is equal to 50°C maximum ambient temperature.


Helpful Information
Accessories
Along with stepper motors, Anaheim Automation carries a comprehensive line of drivers and controllers, power supplies, gear motors, gearboxes, stepper motors linear actuators and integrated stepper motors/driver packages. Additionally, Anaheim Automation offers encoders, brakes, HMI couplings, cables and connectors, linear guides and X-Y tables. If the stepper motors is not ideal for your application, you might consider brushless DC, brush DC, servo, or AC motors, and their compatible drivers/controllers.

Advantages
Cost-effective* Simple designs High reliability Brushless construction Maintenance-free If windings are energized at standstill, the motor has full torque No feedback mechanisms required High acceleration and power rate A wide range of rotational speeds can be attained as the speed is proportional to the frequency of the input pulses Known limit to the dynamic position error *Stepper motors vary in cost based on the criteria for each application. Some criteria include options of 0.9, 1.8, 3.6 and 4.5 step angles, torque ranging from 1 to 5,700 oz-in, and NEMA frame sizes of 08 to 42. Additional attachments such as cables and encoders can be purchased separately for an additional cost. With our friendly customer service and professional application assistance, Anaheim Automation often surpasses customer expectations for fulfilling specific stepper motors and driver requirements, as well as other motion control needs.

Axis Wind Tunnel Project
One of Anaheim Automation Inc.s customers provides services and products for the automobile industry, such as process automation, prototyping, engine test standards, and gauging equipment. At one point, our customer encountered a problem; popular cars were being redesigned, and they needed computer control of stepper motors for their project. They had tried several other motion control manufacturers before deciding to have Anaheim Automation help them with their project. The project dealt with the cooling of an engine in a strange area. Anaheim Automations assignment was to construct a prototype that would scoop air from beneath the car and redirect maximum air flow to this area. It was almost impossible to predict an accurate shape that would allow precise airflow, due to the fact that in order to fit in the available space, the duct had to be in an extremely complex configuration. The solution to this problem involved making a flexible duct that, by moving its parts, allowed it to be reshaped. The duct would be mounted in a wind tunnel, and installed in the prototype of the car. Next, engineers experimented with the ducts shape until they discovered what shape allowed for the best air flow. This shape became the basic model to construct in the overall prototype. Anaheim Automation needed to shape the duct without diverting from the project goal, and therefore needed 15 axes of motion and one easy-to-use controller. To meet this necessity, Anaheim Automation assembled five triple-axis stepper motor drivers, programmable indexers, an interface, and the necessary power supply into a compact package, along with 15 compatible stepper motors. When the computer was turned on, the program came up, so the system didnt require any knowledge of the computer operation. In addition, it reduced operation to simply answering three questions (prompting the user). The user could change the speed at any time; however, the operator did not need to know anything about base speed, acceleration, or deceleration, because the parameters for optimal motor speed was preloaded with the system program. While operating, the program prompted the operator with, What axis, how many steps, and which direction? The user only needed to press the F1 function key to produce the desired motion for the stepper motors to move. With the experiment in full swing, engineers were able to manipulate the air duct in order to achieve maximum air flow underneath the vehicle. The required motion was easily produced at the press of a button, and the positions could be easily repeated. Ultimately, our customers engineering staff was able to determine the exact shape of the duct that provided the car with maximum air flow. Simple, low-cost, and extremely efficient stepper motors and drivers provided the solution the customer required.

Industries that Use Stepper Motors in Their Design
Stepper motors are versatile motion control components that can be applied to several different industries, from entertainment and film, to the business world, to science and medicine. Aircraft: Stepper motors are frequently used in aircraft instruments, scanning equipment, and sensing devices, such as antennas. Automotive: SUVs and RVs, as well as some high-end automobiles, use stepper motors to receive telecommunication signals. Stepper motors are also used for cruise control, automated dashboards gauges and electronic window equipment, as well as in automobile factories on their production lines. Cameras - Filming and Projection: Not only do stepper motors operate filming cameras and projectors, in the entertainment industry, but automatic digital cameras and mobile phone camera modules utilize tiny stepper motors for focusing and zooming functions as well. The security industry also uses stepper motors for zooming, tilting and scanning operations in surveillance and security cameras. Entertainment and Gaming: Slot machines, lottery machines, raffles, card shufflers, and wheel spinners can all be operated by cost-effective and reliable stepper motors. You can also find stepper motors in stage productions to control curtains and lighting functions, for plays and concerts, as well as seminars and rallies. Laboratory and Factory Improvements and Upgrades: Stepper motors are employed to perform tedious movements pertaining to mixing chemicals in laboratories, and operating equipment for controlled environmental testing. Stepper motors are used in retrofit kits (stepper motors, drivers, controllers and power supplies) for CNC machine control, factory automation and assembly processes. Stepper motors can also be found in scientific study, used to position observatory telescopes, and in many different types of scientific equipment, i.e. spectrographs, analyzers, and diagnostic machines. Medical: Stepper motors provide a wide variety of functions for the medical and dental world. Stepper motors are used within medical scanners, multi-axis stepper motor microscopic or nanoscopic motion control of automated devices, auto-injectors, samplers, dispensing pumps, respirators, blood analysis machinery and chromatographs. In the dental industry, stepper motors operate fluid pumps, and are often found inside digital dental photography equipment. Office Equipment: PC based scanning equipment, optical disk drive head driving mechanisms, bar-code printers, label and box printers, scanners, and data storage drives all utilize stepper motors for their motion control operation.

Musical Motors, Stepper Motors and Their Virtuoso Performance
Anaheim Automations tremendous versatility of control systems is evident in their new program titled, Musical Motors. They have utilized stepper motors, stepper drivers, and stepper controllers to operate at speeds that coincide with musical notes and pitches to produce a number of different tunes. Each tune is performed by simply running the program that converts each music note into a certain step-per-second. All of the different stepper motors are programmed to produce an appropriate pitch based on how many steps-per-second they run, and for how long. Typically played at a trade show, the program provides the element of surprise; most people do not expect to hear music that is being played by stepper motors!

Stepper Motors
Stepper Motors are currently used all around the world for many types of applications. These motors provide as constant power devices. At low rpms a high torque can be achieved the same cannot be said when the speed is increased. A high torque cannot be achieved at higher rpms. These motors are great for positioning objects, such as conveyor belts, assembly lines, lathes, laser cutting, grinding and drilling machines, etc. Stepper motors are ideal for precise positioning. You may have a fixed speed, variable speed, and position control. These motors are able to handle complex positions or movements. These devices offer power and precision in a compact sizes. These motors can take a great load. A good example to show this would be an escalator. Escalators are constantly worked and carry very heavy loads throughout the day. The step motor has to be able to take up to several hundreds of pounds maybe even thousands. The speed of the escalator is constant and never changes no matter how many people are on it. A different type of application could be an assembly line. This typically requires precise quick and place movements. Most stepper motors are an open loop system, meaning there is no feedback info needed about the position. By keeping track of the input step pulses, the position is known. Some of the advantages of a stepper motor, but not limited to are: Its input pulse is proportional to angle rotation If windings are energized at stand sill the motor has full torque Different rotation speeds are available since the frequency of input pulses are proportional to the speed. It cost less to have open-loop control that responds to digital input pulses Precise response time to starting, stopping, and reversing No brushes within the motor making it more reliable. There are three different types of stepper motors to choose from, the variable -reluctance, the permanent-magnet, and last but not least the hybrid step motor. The three all have different qualities for certain applications. Stepper motors have been around for a long time and are currently and will continue to be used throughout the world. No matter what the application will be the step motor will always rise to the occasion.

Applications
Although stepper motors have been overshadowed in the past by servo systems for motion control, it has emerged as the preferred technology in more and more areas. The major factor in this trend towards the stepper motors is the prevalence of digital control, the emergence of the microprocessor, improved designed (i.e. high?torque models), and lower cost. Today, stepper motors applications are all around us: they are used in printers (paper feed, print wheel), disk drives, clocks and watches, as well as used in factory automation and machinery. Stepper motors are most often found in motion systems requiring position control. Anaheim Automation's cost?effective stepper motors product line is the wise choice for both OEM and user accounts. Anaheim Automations customers for the stepper motors product line is diverse: industrial companies operating or designing automated machinery or processes involving food, cosmetics or medical packaging, labeling or tamper?evident requirements, cut?to?length applications, assembly, conveyor, material handling, robotics, special filming and projection effects, medical diagnostics, camera tracking, inspection and security devices, aircraft controls, pump flow control, metal fabrication (CNC machinery), and equipment upgrades. Anaheim Automation, Inc. stepper motors product line integrates a matched stepper motors, driver and controller in one unit. This design concept makes selection easy, thus reducing errors and wiring time. With friendly customer service and professional application assistance, Anaheim Automation often surpasses the customers expectations for fulfilling specific stepper motors and driver requirements, as well as other motion control needs. Stepper Motorss are Used in Many Industries Stepper motors have become an essential component to applications in many different industries. The following is a list of industries making use of stepper motorss: Aircraft In the aircraft industry, stepper motors are used in aircraft instrumentations, antenna and sensing applications, and equipment scanning Automotive The automotive industry implements stepper motors for applications concerning cruise control, sensing devices, and cameras. The military also utilizes stepper motorss in their application of positioning antennas Chemical The chemical industry makes use of stepper motors for mixing and sampling of materials. They also utilize stepper motors controllers with single and multi-axis stepper motorss for equipment testing Consumer Electronics and Office Equipment In the consumer electronics industry, stepper motorss are widely used in digital cameras for focus and zoom functionality features. In office equipment, stepper motorss are implemented in PC-based scanning equipment, data storage drives, optical disk drive driving mechanisms, printers, and scanners Gaming In the gaming industry, stepper motorss are widely used in applications like slot and lottery machines, wheel spinners, and even card shufflers Industrial In the industrial industry, stepper motorss are used in automotive gauges, machine tooling with single and multi-axis stepper motors controllers, and retrofit kits which make use of stepper motors controllers as well. Stepper motors can also be found in CNC machine control Medical In the medical industry, stepper motors are utilized in medical scanners, microscopic or nanoscopic motion control of automated devices, dispensing pumps, and chromatograph auto-injectors. Stepper motors are also found inside digital dental photography (X-RAY), fluid pumps, respirators, and blood analysis machinery, centrifuge Scientific Instruments Scientific equipment implement stepper motors in the positioning of an observatory telescope, spectrographs, and centrifuge Surveillance Systems Stepper motors are used in camera surveillance

Basic Types
Each type of stepper motors varies per application by its construction and functionality. The three most common stepper motors types are Variable Reluctance, Permanent Magnet, and Hybrid Stepper Motors. Variable Reluctance (VR) Stepper Motors VR stepper motorss are characterized as having multiple soft iron rotors and a wound stator. VR stepper motors generally operate on the basic principle of the magnetic flux finding the lowest reluctance pathway through a magnetic circuit. In general operation, VR stepper motorss have relatively high step rates of 5 to 15 degrees and have no detent torque. The step angles taken in VR stepper motors are related to the number of teeth the stator and rotor have. The equation relating these two variables can be found in the formula section of this guide. How Does a Variable Reluctance Stepper Motors Work? Referring to Figure 1 on Page 2, the poles become magnetized when the stator windings are energized with DC current. With the poles becoming magnetized, the rotor teeth are now attracted to the energized stator poles and rotate to line up. With the windings around stator A becoming energized the rotor teeth become attracted allowing the poles to line up. When A's windings become de-energized and B's windings become energized, the rotor rotates to line its teeth with the stator teeth. This process continues in sequence with C, followed by D being energized allowing for the rotor to rotate. Brief Summary of Variable Reluctance Stepper Motors: The rotor has multiple soft iron rotors with a wound stator Least complex and expensive stepper motors Large step angles No detent torque detected in hand rotation of a de-energized motor shaft Permanent Magnet (PM) Stepper Motors PM stepper motorss are comprised of permanent magnet rotors with no teeth, which are magnetized perpendicular to the axis of rotation. By energizing the four phases in sequence, the rotor rotates due to the attraction of magnetic poles. The stepper motors shown in Figure 2 on page 3 will take 90 degree steps as the windings are energized in clockwise sequence: ABAB. PM stepper motorss generally have step angles of 45 or 90 degrees and step at relatively low rates. However, they exhibit high torque and good damping characteristics. Anaheim Automation carries a wide selection of PM stepper motorss, ranging from 15 to 57mm in diameter. Brief Summary of Permanent Magnet (PM) Stepper Motors: The rotor is a permanent magnet Large to moderate step angle Often utilized in computer printers as a paper feeder Hybrid Stepper Motors Hybrid stepper motors incorporate the qualities of both the VR and PM stepper motors designs. With the Hybrid stepper motors's multi-toothed rotor resemblance of the VR, and an axially magnetized concentric magnet around its shaft, the Hybrid stepper motors provides an increase in detent, holding and dynamic torque. In comparison to the PM stepper motors, the Hybrid stepper motors provides performance enhancement with respect to step resolution, torque, and speed. In addition, the Hybrid stepper motors is capable of operating at high stepping speeds. Typical Hybrid stepper motorss are designed with step angles of 0.9, 1.8, 3.6 and 4.5; 1.8 being the most common step angle. Hybrid stepper motors are ideally suited for applications having stable loads with speeds under 1,000 rpm. There are key components which are influential of the running torque of a Hybrid stepper motors which are laminations, teeth and magnetic materials. Increasing the amount of laminations on the rotor, precision and sharpness of the rotor and stator teeth, and strength of magnetic material are all factors taken into account in providing optimal torque output for Hybrid stepper motors. Brief Summary of Hybrid Stepper Motors: Smaller step angles in comparison to VR and PM stepper motors Rotor is made of a permanent magnet with fine teeth Increase in detent, holding and dynamic torque 1.8 is the most common step angle NOTE: At Anaheim Automation, the 1.8 degree Hybrid stepper motors is the most widely stocked stepper motors type, ranging in NEMA frame sizes, 08 to 42. The Hybrid stepper motors can also be driven two phases at a time to yield more torque, or alternately one then two then one phase, to produce half-steps or 0.9 degree increments.

Basics
Stepper motors (also referred to as a step or stepping motor) is an electromechanical device achieving mechanical movements through conversion of electrical pulses. Stepper motors are driven by digital pulses rather than by a continuous applied voltage. Unlike conventional electric motors which rotate continuously, stepper motorss rotate or step in fixed angular increments. Stepper motors are most commonly used for position control. With a stepper motors/driver/controller system design, it is assumed the stepper motors will follow digital instructions. One important aspect of stepper motorss is their lack of feedback to maintain control of position. It is this lack of feedback which classifies stepper motors as open-loop systems.

Basics
Stepper Motors are a type of digital device. Digital information is processed through the Stepper Motors to accomplish an end result, in this instance, controlled motion.You can assume that Stepper Motors products will dependably follow digital instructions just as a computer is anticipated to. This is the unique feature for Stepper motors. Stepper Motors are electric power motors that are driven by digital pulses as opposed to a continuously applied voltage. Inherent in this concept is open-loop control, where a train of pulses converts into so many shaft revolutions, with each revolution requiring a given number of pulses. Each pulse equals one rotary increment, or step (hence, Stepper motors), which is only a portion of one finished rotation. As a result, counting pulses can be applied in Stepper Motors to accomplish a ideal amount of shaft rotation. The count automatically represents how much movement has been achieved, without the demand for feedback information, as would be the instance in servo systems.

Common Causes for Failure
NOTE: Always read the specification sheet/user's guide accompanying each product. Problem: The stepper motors wires were disconnected while the driver was powered up. Solution: Avoid performing any service to the stepper motors, driver or controller while the power is on, especially in regard to the motor connections. This precaution is imperative for both the driver and the technician/installer. Problem: The stepper motors have a shorted winding or a short to the motor case. Solution: It is likely you have a defective stepper motors. Do not attempt to repair motors. Opening the stepper motors may cause the motor to lose its magnetism, causing poor performance. Opening of the stepper motors case will also void your warranty. The motor windings can be tested with an ohmmeter. As a rule of thumb, if the stepper motors is a frame size of NEMA 08, 11, 14, 15, 17, 23, or 34 and the warranty period has expired, it is not cost-effective to return these stepper motorss for repair. Contact the factory if you suspect a defective stepper motors that is still under warranty, or if the stepper motors is a NEMA frame size 42 or a K?series motor. Problem: Environmental factors are less than ideal. Solution: Environmental factors such as welding, chemical vapors, moisture, humidity, dust, metal debris, etc., can damage the electronic components and the stepper motors. Protect drivers, controllers and stepper motorss from environments that are corrosive, contain voltage spikes, or prevent good ventilation. Anaheim Automation offers products in several line voltage ranges, as well as splash?proof, IP65 rated stepper motorss. For wash?down or explosion?proof motors, contact the factory directly. For AC lines containing voltage spikes, a line regulator (filter) will likely be required. NOTE: If your application requires welding, or if welding is done in the same work environment, contact the factory for advice on how to protect the stepper motors driver and controller. Problem: The stepper motors is back?driving the stepper driver. Solution: A stepper motors being turned by a load creates a back EMF voltage on the driver. Higher speeds will produce higher voltage levels. If the rotational speed gets excessively high, this voltage may cause damage to the driver. This is especially dangerous when the motor is back?driven while the driver is still on. Place a mechanical stop or brake in applications which may be subject to these phenomena.

Common Causes for Failure
Common Causes for Stepper Motors and/or Stepper Driver Failure NOTE: Make sure to look over the specification sheet/users guide that accompanies each product Problem: Irregular or erratic stepper motors or drivers function. Solution: In terms of failures, this is the most common, and the hardest to detect. Start by checking to make sure that all connections are secured between stepper motorss and drivers. Evidence like discoloration at the terminals/connections, may reveal a loose connection. Make certain to inspect all terminal blocks and connectors when exchanging stepper motors, driver, or Driver Pack in a motion control system. Check cabling/wiring for precision. Stress stepper motors wiring and connections for worse problems and check with an ohmmeter. Problem: Stepper motors wires were disconnected while the driver was powered up. Solution: Refrain from performing any service to the stepper motorss or drivers as the power is on, especially in regard to motor connectors. This safety measure is not only to protect the specialist or installer, but will also to protect the driver. Problem: Bad system performance. Solution: Check to discover if the wire/cables are too long. Keep wire/cable to the stepper motorss below 25 feet in length. For applications where the wiring from the stepper motorss to the stepper drivers is higher than 25 feet, please contact the factory for instructions, as chances are that transient voltage protection devices are going to be required. Another likelihood is that the stepper motors lead wires are of a gauge that is far too small. Never match your cable wires to the gauge size of the stepper motors lead wires. Anaheim Automation advises using a shielded cable for such wiring (purchased separately). Because most stepper motorss start to lose their magnetism over time of use, you should keep reports of how old each one is; as this can affect performance. Typically its possible to expect 10,000 operating hours for stepper motorss (roughly 4.8 years, running one eight-hour shift every work day). Also, make certain that your stepper motors and driver combo is a beneficial match for your application. Contact the factory, should you have any worries. Problem: The stepper motors has a shorted winding or a short to the motor case. Solution: It is likely that you have a defective stepper motors. Do not attempt to repair motors. Opening the stepper motors case may de-magnetize the motor, leading to poor performance. Opening of the stepper motors case will also void your warranty. As an alternative, use an ohmmeter to test the motor windings. As a general guideline, if the stepper motors is a frame size of NEMA 08, 11, 14, 15, 17, 23, or 34 and the warranty period has expired, it is not cost-effective to return these stepper motorss for service. Call the factory if you believe you have a defective stepper motors that is still under warranty, or if it is a NEMA size 42 or a K-series motor. Problem: The stepper motors driver or Driver Pack is over-heating. Solution: Air flow and cooling accommodations are vital : inability to provide adequate air flow will affect the stepper motors drivers overall performance and will shorten the life of the driver. Maintain driver temperatures below 60 degrees Celsius. To preserve good airflow: use fans, heat sink material, and base plates, so as not to exceed the optimum temperature rating of the stepper motorss, drivers or controllers. Be mindful of temperatures inside cabinets and enclosures where stepper drivers may be attached. Problem: Environmental factors are less than ideal. Solution: Environmental factors, such as welding, chemical vapors, moisture, humidity, dust, etc., can damage both the electronics and the stepper motorss. Protect drivers, controllers and stepper motorss from environments that are corrosive, contain voltage spikes, orreduce good ventilation. Anaheim Automation offers products in a number of line voltage ranges. A line filtration system/regulator will probably be desired for AC lines that contain voltage spikes. Problem: Pulse rates (Clock or Step) to the driver are too high. Solution: The typical half-step driver can drive stepper motorss at a top rate of 20,000 pulse per second. Pulse rates of above 60,000 pulses per second can impair the driver. The best combination of the motor and driver for the greatest performance is more clear in the individual specification sheets for each product. Problem: The stepper motors is stalling. Solution: Watch out for motors that stall, as it has the potential to damage the phase transistors on the driverby large voltage spikes. Some drivers are created to protect itself from such an event. If not, Transient Suppression Devices can be added externally. Seek advice from the factory for further information. Problem: The stepper motors is back-driving the driver. Solution: A stepper motors that is being turned with a load creates a back EMF current on the driver. Higher speeds will produce higher voltage levels. If the rotational speed should get very high, this voltage could potentially cause damage to the driver. This is especially dangerous when the motor is back-driven while the driver is on. Put a mechanical stop or brake in applications that might be subject to these phenomena. General Safety Considerations for Stepper Motors Applications The up coming safety considerations are required to be observed during all phases of operation, service and repair. Failure to comply with these safety measures violates protection standards of design, manufacture, and intended use of a Unipolar Stepper Motors, drivers and controllers. Anaheim Automation, Inc. takes on no responsibility for the customers failure to comply with thesespecifications. Even well built products, operated or installed inaccurately, can be hazardous. Safety measures must be observed by the user with caution to the load and operating environment. The customer is responsible for proper selection, installation and operation of the products purchased from Anaheim Automation, Inc. Use care when handling, testing, and adjusting during installation, set-up and operation Anytime power is applied, service should not be conducted Be sure that the motor/driver has enough heat dissipation and air flow Exposed circuitry should be effectively guarded or enclosed to counteract unauthorized human contact with live circuitry It is important that all products be properly grounded and securely mounted Elements including flammable gases, vapors, liquids or dust should not interact with motors in operation

Customization
Several choices for customization options for Stepper Motors are accessible through Anaheim Automation. The variety of modifications includes, but is not confined to: shaft, brake, oil seal for an IP65 rating, mounting dimensions, speed, torque, and voltage. Contact Anaheim Automation today to set up an order for utilities with Stepper Motors products that require customization: 1-714-992-6990.

Disadvantages
Low efficiency (Stepper motors attract a substantial amount of power regardless of the load) Torque drops rapidly with speed (torque is inversely proportional of speed) Prone to resonance* (Microstepping allows for smooth motion) No feedback to indicate missed steps Low torque-to-inertia ratio Cannot accelerate loads very rapidly Motor gets very hot in high performance configurations Motor will not "pick up" after momentary overload Motor is noisy at moderate to high speeds Low output power for size and weight *Resonance-is inherent in the design and operation of all stepping motors and occurs at specific step rates. It is the combination of slow stepping rates, high rotor inertia, and elevated torque which produce ringing as the rotor overshoots its desired angular displacement and is pulled back into position causing resonance to occur. Adjusting either one of the three parameters inertial load, step rate, or torque- will reduce or eliminate resonance. In practical practice, the torque parameter is more controllable using microstepping. In microstepping mode, power is applied to the stator windings incrementally which causes torque to slowly build, reducing overshoot and therefore reducing resonance.

Environmental Considerations
The following environmental and safety considerations must be observed during all phases of operation, service and repair of stepper motors system. Failure to comply with these precautions violates safety standards of design, manufacture and intended use of the stepper motors, driver and controller. Please note that even with a well?built stepper motors, products operated and installed improperly can be hazardous. Precaution must be observed by the user with respect to the load and operating environment. The customer is ultimately responsible for the proper selection, installation, and operation of the stepper motors system. The atmosphere in which stepper motors is used must be conducive to good general practices of electrical/electronic equipment. Do not operate the stepper motors in the presence of flammable gases, dust, oil, vapor or moisture. For outdoor use, the stepper motors, driver and controller must be protected from the elements by an adequate cover, while still providing adequate air flow and cooling. Moisture may cause an electrical shock hazard and/or induce system breakdown. Due consideration should be given to the avoidance of liquids and vapors of any kind. Contact the factory should your application require specific IP ratings. It is wise to install the stepper motors, driver and controller in an environment which is free from condensation, dust, electrical noise, vibration and shock. Additionally, it is preferable to work with the stepper motors/driver /controller system in a non?static, protective environment. Exposed circuitry should always be properly guarded and/or enclosed to prevent unauthorized human contact with live circuitry. No work should be performed while power is applied. Don't plug in or unplug the connectors when power is ON. Wait for at least 5 minutes before doing inspection work on the stepper motors system after turning power OFF, because even after the power is turned off, there will still be some electrical energy remaining in the capacitors of the internal circuit of the stepper motors driver. Plan the installation of the stepper motors, driver and/or controller in a system design that is free from debris, such as metal debris from cutting, drilling, tapping, and welding, or any other foreign material that could come in contact with circuitry. Failure to prevent debris from entering the stepper motors system can result in damage and/or shock.

FAQs
Q: Why is the stepper motors size important? Is it possible to just choose a large motor size? A: The stepper motors size is important because if the motor's rotor inertia predominately consists of the load, resonance increases and poses issues. Also, larger rotors require more time to accelerate and decelerate and therefore it is important to choose a motor size dependent on the criteria for user applications. Q: While increasing speed, why do stepper motors lose torque? A: Inductance is the leading cause for motors losing torque at high speeds. The electrical time constant, ?, is the amount of time it takes a motor winding to charge up to 63% of its rated value given a resistance, R, and inductance, L. With ? = R/L, at low speeds, high inductance is not an issue since current can easily flow through the motor windings quickly. However, at high speeds, sufficient current cannot pass through the windings quick enough before the current is switched to the next phase, thereby reducing the torque provided by the motor. Therefore, it is the current and number of turns in the windings which determines the maximum output torque in a motor, while the applied voltage to the motor and the inductance value of the winding will affect on the speed at which a given amount of torque can be produced. Q: Why does increasing the voltage increase the torque if stepper motors are not voltage driven? A: Voltage can be viewed as forcing current through the coil windings. By increasing voltage, pressure to force current through the coil also increases. Therefore, this vast amount of current being forced through the coil causes it to saturate which results in loss of torque and increase of speed. Q: What temperatures are stepper motors able to run at? A: Most stepper motorss include Class B insulation. This allows the motor to sustain temperatures of up to 130 C. Therefore, with an ambient temperature of 40 C, the stepper motors have a temperature rise allowance of 90 C allowing for stepper motors to run at high temperatures. Q: Is it possible to get more torque by running the stepper motors at double its rated current? A: It is possible to increase torque by increasing the current but by doing so, it weakens the motor's ability to run smoother. Q: What is the difference between four, six and eight leads in motors? A: Stepper motors have the capability to run in either parallel or series modes. In a parallel mode, only a four lead motor can be run while in a series mode a six lead motor can be run. Eight lead motors can run in either parallel or series configurations. In applications where more torque is required at higher speeds, a lower inductance value given from a four lead motor is better choice. Q: What is the difference between Unipolar and Bipolar motors? A: A unipolar wound motor has six lead wires with each winding having a center tap. Most applications implementing unipolar wound motors require high speed and torque. On the other hand, a bipolar wound motor has four lead wires with having no center tap connections. Most applications implementing bipolar wound motors require high torque at low speeds. Q: What is the difference between a closed-loop stepper motors controller and an open-loop stepper motors controller? A: In an open-loop stepper motors controller, no feedback is going from the motor to the controller. This type of controller is effective when the motor is carrying a constant load at a steady speed. A closed-loop motor controller is more applicable in applications where load or speed varies. In comparison to the closed-loop controller, the open-loop controller lacks complexity and is more affordable. Q: When should I use microstepping? A: Microstepping is typically used in applications which require the motor to operate at less than 700 pulses per second.

Feedback
Stepper Motors are typically controlled by a driver and indexer. The amount, speed, and direction of rotation of Stepper Motors are determined by the right configuration of digital control devices. The main types of control devices for Stepper Motors are: Stepper Motors Drivers, Stepper Motors Control Links, and Stepper Motors Controllers. These devices are set up in figure 8. The Stepper Driver accepts the clock pulses and direction signals and translates these signals into appropriate phase currents for the Stepper Motor. The Stepper Indexer creates the clock pulses and the direction signals for the Stepper Motors. The computer or PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) sends out commands to the indexer.

General Safety Considerations
The following safety considerations are required to be observed during all phases of operation, service and repair. Failure to conform with these safety measures violates safety standards of design, manufacture, and designated use of Stepper Motors, drivers and controllers. Anaheim Automation, Inc. assumes no responsibility for the customers incapacity to comply with theserequirements. Even well-built products, operated or installed improperly, can be hazardous. Safety precautions must be observed by the user with regard to the load and operating environment. The customer is liable for appropriate selection, installation and operation of the products purchased from Anaheim Automation, Inc. Use caution when handling, testing, and adjusting during installation, set-up and operation Service must not be performed with power applied Make sure the motor/driver has plenty of heat dissipation and air flow Exposed circuitry should be properly guarded or enclosed to counteract unauthorized human contact with live circuitry All products should be firmly mounted and effectively grounded Elements such as flammable gases, vapors, liquids or dust should not interact with motors in operation NOTE: Please Use a RMA Form should you need to return a product for REPAIR. This form can be found in Support, Forms, RMA Request on this web site.

Glossary
Bifilar Winding refers to the winding configuration of stepper motors where each stator pole has a pair of windings; the stepper motors will have either 6 or 8 lead wires, depending on termination. This wiring configuration can be driven from a unipolar or bipolar driver. Clock a pulse generator, which controls the timing of switching circuits that control the speed of the step motor. Closed-Loop a system with a feedback type of control, such that the output is used to modify the input. Controller (Stepper Motors) a regulating mechanism; essentially a DC power supply plus power switching with associated circuits for controlling the switching in the proper sequence. Detent Torque is the holding torque when no current is flowing in the motor. The maximum torque which can be applied to the shaft of an unenergized step motor without causing continuous rotation. The minimal torque present in an unenergized motor. The detent torque of a step motor is typically about 1% of its static energized torque. Driver (Stepper Motors) often referred to as a translator, drives a step motor based on pulses from a clock, pulse generator, or computer. Translates the train of pulses and applied power to the appropriate step motor windings. Dynamic Torque the torque developed by stepper motors while stepping at low rates. Encoder often called a pulse generator, is a feedback device for step motors. It consists of a disc, vane, or reflector attached to the stepper motors shaft to provide digital pulses, which are provided to a translator and /or counters. This provides positional information if fed into a counter. Speed information may be derived if the time between successive pulses is measured and decoded. Holding Torque the maximum torque that can be externally applied to the step motor shaft without causing continuous rotation when one or more phases of the motor are energized. Inertia is a measure of an object's resistance to a change in velocity. Maximum Running Torque the maximum torque load that stepper motors can drive without missing a step. This typically occurs when the windings are sequentially energized at approximately 5 pps. Open-Loop refers to a motion control system where no external sensors are used to provide position or velocity correction signals. Permanent Magnet Stepper Motors stepper motors having permanent magnet poles. Pole the part of a magnetic circuit where a magnetic pole is generated either by a permanent magnet or by windings. Pulse an electrical signal or voltage of short duration, used in conveying intelligence. Rated Torque the torque-producing capacity of stepper motors at a given speed. This is the maximum torque the motor can deliver to a load and is usually specified with a torque/speed curve. Resolution the smallest positioning increment that can be achieved. It is frequently defined as the number of steps required for the stepper motors shaft to rotate one complete revolution. The reciprocal of the number of steps per revolution of the motor. Rotor the rotating part of the stepper motors (the shaft may be included). Stator the stationary magnetic parts of the motor including the windings. Step movement of the rotor from one energized position to the next. Step Angle the nominal angle through which the shaft of stepper motors turns between adjacent step positions. It depends upon the motor and driving sequence (mode of drive). Step Increment an indication of step or motion size. Usually this is specified in degrees for a rotary motor and inches or millimeters for a linear motor. Step (Stepping, Stepper) Motor a digital actuator, which operates from discrete pulses (input signals) and produces motion in discrete increments. May be rotary or linear increment. Step Position the angular position that the shaft of an unloaded step motor assumes when energized. The step position is not necessarily the same as the detent position. Teeth projections on both rotor and stator such that when aligned they produce a low reluctance magnetic path. Torque a force or couple tending to, or producing, rotation. Common step motor torque units are oz-in, N-m, or mNm. Train Pulse a series of spaced pulses. Unifilar Winding refers to the winding configuration of the stepper motors where each stator pole has one set of windings; the stepper motors will have only 4 lead wires. This winding configuration can only be driven from a bipolar driver. Variable Reluctance Stepper Motors stepper motors having only soft iron poles.

How are Stepper Motors Controlled
A stepper motors perform the conversion of logic pulses by sequencing power to the stepper motors windings; generally, one supplied pulse will yield one rotational step of the motor. This precision is provided by a stepper driver, which is able to control speed and positioning of the stepper motors. The stepper motors increment a precise amount with each control pulse, converting digital information into exact incremental rotation without the need for feedback devices, such as tachometers or encoders. Since the stepper motors/driver is an open-loop system, the problems of feedback loop phase shift and resultant instability, common with servo motor/drive systems, are eliminated.

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